The trend of the cut flower industry is gradually shifting from conventional cultivation to extended cropping seasons and off-season production. Alteration of flower time is highly desirable in the cut flower industry to get high-quality yield at targeted times viz., festivities and marriages. This is crucial in balancing the trade by reducing the entry of surplus produce into the market.
The production of harvestable produce depends on the product of genetic makeup and a sequence of events of growth and development of the crop. Recent studies have established the role of genes in controlling flowering time and vigor of the plants, which directly impact the yields of quality produce. Time of flowering and a plant’s requirement to external environment factors viz. vernalization, temperature, and photoperiod are determining factors of elite germplasm. Therefore, this review focuses on providing cumulative insight into the influence of external environmental cues and recently developed technologies involving genetic level modifications and their interaction with flowering time.
Photoperiod (day length) can control many of the developmental responses in plants and it is well known in cereals and other crops, however, studies are still lacking in floriculture crops. Growth regulators aid in moderating plant growth and development as well as facilitating responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses.
To counter such stresses, plants either begin flowering to produce seeds for ensuring their survival, or delay flowering by slowing down their metabolism till the crisis has been averted. These responses vary depending upon the dose of the stimulus, the plant developmental stage, or even the cultivar used. This basic information on the regulation of flowering insight how crops might be managed to optimize harvest time, reduce a glut in the market, and increase the price of the product under various environmental challenges.
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Chandel, Anjali & Thakur, Meenakshi & Singh, Gurpreet & Dogra, Ruchika & Bajad, Ankush & Soni, Vikas & Bhargava, Bhavya. (2022). Flower Regulation in Floriculture: An Agronomic Concept and Commercial Use. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 1-26. 10.1007/s00344-022-10688-0.