Horticultural crops comprise various economic species extending from fruits, nuts, vegetables, spices and condiments, ornamentals, aromatic, and medicinal plants. Ornamental and fruit plants are produced mainly for their nutritional and aesthetic values, respectively.
Unfortunately, many tropical and subtropical species are in danger of extinction because of climate change and (a)biotic stresses. It is imperative to preserve the germplasms of these species for the present and future genetic improvement programs. Cryopreservation, i.e., maintenance of tissues at the ultralow temperature of liquid nitrogen, is a promising long-term preservation technique, alternative to seed or in vitro banks, which can be applied both vegetatively and generatively through seeds to propagated crops, including those with recalcitrant seeds. It is a technology of choice not only for the preservation of plant biodiversity but also for virus elimination in the proficient administration of large-scale micropropagation.
The main advantages of cryopreservation are the lowering of in vitro culture expenditures, needed space, contamination risk, and operator errors. However, tropical species are temperature delicate and one of the foremost challenging issues is preconditioning treatments that stimulate physiological reactions to sufficiently enhance tolerance to dehydration and cryogenic procedures. In recent years, several cryopreservation methods based on encapsulation-vitrification, droplet-vitrification, the use of aluminum cryo-plates, and cryo-mesh have been established. Combined cryo-techniques, gene/DNA conservation, as well as studies on perceiving bio-molecular events and exploring the multistage process from the beginning to end of cryopreservation are receiving more emphasis.
The development of probiotics delivers a conceptual framework to assess the significance of cell signaling mechanisms on cellular functions, the influence of cryoinjury factors on sample viability, and the implications for genetic stability following cryo-storage. This mini-review article aims to provide a succinct synthesis of the developed cryogenic procedures and their use for the storage and exchange of genetic resources of tropical and subtropical horticultural crops, particularly fruit crops and ornamental plants under the threat of extinction.
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Kaviani Livani, Behzad & Kulus, Dariusz. (2022). Cryopreservation of Endangered Ornamental Plants and Fruit Crops from Tropical and Subtropical Regions. Biology. 11. 847. 10.3390/biology11060847.